Fixed-income arbitrage is an investment strategy that attempts to profit from pricing differences in various bonds or other interest-rate securities. When using a fixed-income arbitrage strategy,.. Fixed-Income Arbitrage. At the opposite end of the risk scale from high volatility investment strategies like event-driven and emerging markets, fixed-income arbitrage funds seek to provide investors with minimal monthly volatility as well as solid returns In finance, volatility arbitrage is a type of statistical arbitrage that is implemented by trading a delta neutral portfolio of an option and its underlying. The objective is to take advantage of differences between the implied volatility of the option, and a forecast of future realized volatility of the option's underlying. In volatility arbitrage, volatility rather than price is used as the unit of relative measure, i.e. traders attempt to buy volatility when it is low and sell. • Aim to provide a uniﬁed evaluation framework of ﬁxed income volatility — Deal with disparate markets such as interest rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit — Develop model-free, forward looking indexes of ﬁxed income volatility that match diﬀerent quoting conventions across various market Fixed income relative value Relative value can be defined as expected price convergence of contracts or portfolios with similar risk profiles. For fixed income this means similar exposure to duration, convexity and credit risk. The causes of relative value are limited arbitrage capital and aversion to the risk of persistent divergence

The recent drop in fixed-income volatility is also supportive of performance. The search for yield and continued ECB/BoJ -Income Arbitrage strategies, preferring corporate arbitrage and structured credit related styles over classic fixed income arbitrage funds which are vulnerable to a potential volatility spike. Convertible Arbitrage 1.13 Explain the maturity structure of yield volatilities and their effect on price volatility (LOS.32.m) 2 The Arbitrage-Free Valuation Framework (Reading 33) 2.1 Explain what is meant by arbitrage-free valuation of a fixed-income instrument (LOS.33.a) 2.2 Calculate the arbitrage-free value of an option-free, fixed-rate coupon bond (LOS.33.b Fixed-Income Arbitrage Hedge funds that engage in fixed-income arbitrage eke out returns from risk-free government bonds, eliminating credit risk. Remember, investors who use arbitrage to buy.. Fixed income arbitrage Fixed income securities pay a set of coupons at specified dates in the future, and make a defined redemption payment at maturity. Since bonds of similar maturities and the same credit quality are close substitutes for investors, there tends to be a close relationship between their prices (and yields)

Fixed-Income Volatility Arbitrage In this section, we examine the returns from following a fixed-income volatility arbitrage strategy. Volatility arbitrage has a long tradition as a popular and widely used strategy among Wall Street firms and other major financial market participants Fixed Income - Corporate strategies differ from Event Driven: Credit Arbitrage in that the former more typically involve more general market hedges which may vary in the degree to which they limit fixed income market exposure, while the latter typically involve arbitrage positions with little or no net credit market exposure, but are predicated on specific, anticipated idiosyncratic developments ** fixed-income arbitrage**.

Understanding Fixed Income Risk Metrics. In Australia the fixed income asset class receives comparatively less media attention than equities. For this reason, many investors find fixed income jargon, research and its related concepts confusing and hard to understand. However, in periods of extreme volatility relatively safe income securities. Convergence trade is a trading strategy consisting of two positions: buying one asset forward—i.e., for delivery in future —and selling a similar asset forward for a higher price, in the expectation that by the time the assets must be delivered, the prices will have become closer to equal, and thus one profits by the amount of convergence. Convergence trades are often referred to as arbitrage, though in careful use arbitrage only refers to trading in the same or identical. Fixed-income arbitrage is an investment strategy that exploits pricing differentials between fixed-income securities. Before we explain that, let's review the concept of arbitrage. Arbitrage, at its most simplest, involves buying securities on one market for immediate resale on another market in order to profit from a price discrepancy Fixed Income Arbitrage. Fixed income arbitrage is mainly used by investment banks and hedge funds which aim to profit from the interest rate anomalies between different fixed income securities like municipal bonds, corporate bonds, government bonds, mortgage backed securities, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps * The fixed income arbitrageur aims to profit from price anomalies between related interest rate securities*. Most managers trade globally with a goal of generating steady returns with low volatility. This category includes interest rate swap arbitrage, US and non-US government bond arbitrage and forward yield curve arbitrage

- the relative value category: fixed income, volatility and yield alternatives. Relative value sub-strategies Fixed income securities used in the relative value strategy may include sovereign bonds, interest rate swaps, futures, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, municipal bonds and corporate debt. The pairs or groups o
- imal volatility regardless of market direction through a combination of long..
- • Mortgage arbitrage. • Volatility arbitrage. • Capital structure arbitrage. As in Mitchell and Pulvino (2001), our approach consists of following speciﬁc trading 1The total amount of capital devoted to ﬁxed income arbitrage is likely much larger since the Tremont/TASS (2005) report covers less than 50 percent of the total es-timated.
- Fixed-Income Relative-Value Investing is a hedge fund investment strategy made popular by the failed hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management. FI-RV Investors most commonly exploit interest-rate anomalies in the large, liquid markets of North America, Europe and the Pacific Rim. The financial instruments traded include government bonds, interest rate swaps and futures contracts
- Pricing -Fixed income ETFs reflected real-time value Liquidity -Fixed income ETFs were efficient to trade The Arbitrage Mechanism - performed as expected. iShares iBoxx $ High Yield Corporate Bond ETF (HYG) secondary volume vs. Cboe Volatility Index Source: BlackRock, Bloomberg (data as of March 24, 2020) We demonstrate this by evaluating th
- or price difference. Fixed income arbitrage strategies are typically market-neutral.

Fixed-income arbitrage funds attempt to exploit pricing inefficiencies in fixed income markets by combining long/short positions of various fixed income securities. For example, historically, because of the limited liquidity of the Italian bond futures market, the currency-hedged returns from this market in the short term were lower than the short-term returns in the very liquid U.S. Treasury. Fixed-income arbitrage is primarily used by hedge funds and leading investment banks. small caps are described as more volatile. The volatility of a stock relative to the overall market is known as its beta, and the volatility triggered by internal factors, regardless of the market, is known as a stock's alpha Browse new releases, best sellers or classics & Find your next favourite boo Measuring Limits of Arbitrage in Fixed-Income Markets . by Jean-Sébastien Fontaine and Guillaume Nolin . 2 Bank of Canada Staff Working Paper 2017-44 . correlated with local volatility and funding costs. Limits to arbitrage also exhibit strong commonality across countries, consistent with the international mobility of capital

- For those reluctant to invest in a volatility arbitrage fund, the put ratio strategy described below can provide an optimal hedge for more traditional investments, i.e. Eckhardt Trading Company - Evolution Strategies SYSTEMATIC VOLATILITY STRATEGY DESCRIPTION Dr. Jonathan Kinlay is the founder of Systematic Strategies, a systematic hedge fund that We do carry trades. The Systematic.
- An emerging literature relies on an index of limits of arbitrage in fixed‐income markets. We analyze the benefits of an index that is model‐free, robust, and intuitive. This new index strengthens the evidence that limits of arbitrage proxy for risks priced in the cross‐section of returns
- imise volatility and reduce the probability of capital loss. This will ensure that a steady income will be paid over the life time of the security and more importantly, the principal will be paid back at maturity
- Fixed-income arbitrage One study showed FIA funds posted weak returns January 2012 Print Edition By Michael Nairne In today's environment, some financial advisors have undoubtedly been attracted to the high yields being offered by some fixed-income hedge funds. As fixed-income arbitrage strategies ca
- The fund aims to produce superior returns by exploiting volatility inefficiencies in the equity and fixed income markets, By None March 17, 2003 12:00 AM GMT Mako Investment Managers (MIM) says its Mako VolPlus volatility arbitrage fund, launched on 3 March, closed on the same day, substantially oversubscribed
- As a fixed income substitute: Alpine's core business of merger arbitrage has been consistently profitable, exhibited low volatility, and benefited from rising interest rate environments As an equity alternative: Alpine has produced superior long-term returns while avoiding the severe stress caused by significant downside volatillit
- A comprehensive guide to the current theories and methodologies intrinsic to fixed-income securities. Written by well-known experts from a cross section of academia and finance, Handbook of Fixed-Income Securities features a compilation of the most up-to-date fixed-income securities techniques and methods.The book presents crucial topics of fixed income in an accessible and logical format

Volatility risk - the risk that explain and demonstrate the use of the arbitrage-free valuation approach and describe how a dealer can generate an arbitrage profit if a bond is mispriced. CFA Level 1 - Fixed Income 251 Terms. siapnonetzerocom. CFA Level 1 - All SS 1,030 Terms. alexhoy1 In Equity and fixed-income markets, the implied volatility curve is often far from being symmetrical, but heavily skewed in one direction. We speak about the skew. To say there is a skew means that European options with low strikes have higher implied volatilities than those with higher strikes However, in fixed income trading, one often encounters the word arbitrage used to describe other activities. The reason why this mathematical definition is not too useful in practice is that. If a time/volatility arbitrage fails, that failure can manifest via either leg of the arbitrage: either by a compression in time - i.e., prices move abnormally fast Source: Created by author.

In finance, volatility arbitrage (or vol arb) is a type of statistical arbitrage that is implemented by trading a delta neutral portfolio of an option and its underlying.The objective is to take advantage of differences between the implied volatility of the option, and a forecast of future realized volatility of the option's underlying. In volatility arbitrage, volatility rather than price is. This is important for fixed-income investors to consider given interest rates are at all-time record lows and bond portfolios will be punished when rates rise. 4, Tax Efficient Income The yield produced by a merger arbitrage investment is generated by the closing of the discount between the target company's share price after the deal announcement and the consideration received once the deal.

Analytical Tools for Fixed-Income Securities. Advanced Models and Algorithms. Fixed-Income Analytics on the Trading Floor. Relative-Value Trading in Short-Maturity Instruments. Yield Spreads in the Intermediate- and Long-MaturitySectors. Relative-Volatility Trading in Bond Options. Critical Success Factors of an Arbitrage Trading Unit. Index A number of factors can be attributed to the deterioration in convertible issuance, including: the diminished coupon advantage of convertibles in a zero-rate world; low implied volatility level (higher volatility allow issuers to command greater premiums); and the ceaseless passive and active strategy demand for vanilla fixed income products over the past decade * Assignment # 1 Case Name(s): Fixed Income Arbitrage in a Financial Crisis (A) Section : 2 Professor : Evan Dudley, Ph*.D Date : October 2 nd, 2020 MFIN 829 - Fixed Income Instruments and Markets Course Team 2A Member Names Student Number 1 Amit Tayal 20250940 2 Bilash Das 20246183 3 Cleo Li 05873433 4 Cece Chindah 20246243 5 Dong Feng 20229304 6 Solomon Sserwanga 20246940 7 Zack Chetrat 2021703

Volatility arbitrage is not true economic arbitrage (in the sense of a risk free profit opportunity). It relies on predicting the future direction of implied volatility. Even portfolio based volatility arbitrage approaches which seek to diversify volatility risk can experience black swan events when changes in implied volatility are correlated across multiple securities and even markets Fixed-income arbitrage is an investment strategy generally associated with hedge funds, which consists of the discovery and exploitation of inefficiencies in the pricing of bonds, i.e. instruments from either public or private issuers, yielding a contractually fixed stream of income.. Most arbitrageurs who employ this strategy trade globally.. In pursuit of their goal of both steady returns. Fixed Income Arbitrage positions can use government bonds, interest rate swaps, and interest rate futures. One popular example of this style of trading in fixed income arbitrage is the basis trade, in which one sells (buys) Treasury futures, and buys (sells) a corresponding amount of the potential deliverable bond * A common example of a fixed-income arbitrage strategy that does not fit the mold of a pure arbitrage is swap-spread arbitrage*. In pursuit of their goal of both steady returns and low volatility, the arbitrageurs can focus upon interest rate swaps, US non-US government bond arbitrage, US Treasury securities, forward yield curves, and/or mortgage-backed securities

After this brief introduction, Section 2 defines an arbitrage opportunity and discusses the implications of no arbitrage for the valuation of fixed-income securities. Section 3 presents some essential ideas and tools from yield curve analysis needed to introduce the binomial interest rate tree Fixed income strategies try to achieve returns with less risk than the stock market and measure themselves against the alternative of holding cash - which has no volatility and almost no return. Therefore, Merger-Arbitrage's benchmark is cash, as measured by 3 mo. USD LIBOR In finance, volatility arbitrage (or vol arb) is a type of statistical arbitrage that is implemented by trading a delta neutral portfolio of an option and its underlying. The objective is to take advantage of differences between the implied volatility of the option, and a forecast of future realized volatility of the option's underlying. In volatility arbitrage, volatility rather than price is.

- Introduction to fixed income analytics : relative value Valuing a Zero-Coupon Bond. Valuing a Bond Between Coupon Payments. Traditional Approach to Valuation. The Arbitrage-Free Valuation Approach. Concepts Presented Chapter 12 Measuring Interest Rate Risk. The Full Valuation Approach. Price Volatility Characteristics of Bonds.
- arbitrage structure that underlies the well documented failure of the no arbitrage stochastic volatility models to rationalize the deviations from the EH in the data. The tension between rst and second moments arises because of the fact that volatility must be a positive process. This requires that forecasts of volatility must also be positive
- These fixed income investments embrace both steady returns and low-volatility, thus encouraging interest-rate swaps by arbitrageurs. However funny it may sound, but picking up money from beneath the wheels of a moving steamroller involves lesser risks than practicing fixed-income arbitrage. Risks and Returns of Fixed-income Arbitrage
- and fixed income markets. The DWP Volatility Arbitrage Fund specifically trades the pricing ineffi-ciency between index options and the individual stock options that make up the index. Pricing inef-ficiencies between individual stock and index options exist because there are different participants trading each

- Other potential users include large bond funds that are naturally long interest rate volatility and are seeking a yield-enhancing mechanism, as well as hedge funds, volatility arbitrage firms and global macro participants seeking to express views on monetary policy or capture mispricing anomalies between cross-asset volatility (e.g., fixed income versus equity volatility)
- The Irish-domiciled Asgard Fixed Income Risk Premia fund pursues the same strategy as the Cayman-domiciled Asgard Fixed Income Fund, which launched in 2003 and is closed for subscription. Moma Advisors, an authorised AIFM, launched an Irish ICAV, which is an AIF, to more easily access European investors
- The medium term investment horizon handles the volatility risk. The volatility risk usually arises due to equity exposure. The portfolio manager identifies the arbitrage opportunity and takes a position to align with the funds objective. Additionally, some portion of the asset is invested in fixed income instruments
- View Essay - Duong Nguyen - Fixed Income Arbitrage.docx from FI 570 at Fairfield University. Fixed Income Arbitrage in a Financial Crisis: US Treasuries in November 2008 Fairfield University Dola
- View Details | Supplement. Fixed income arbitrage Fixed income securities pay a set of coupons at specified dates in the future, and make a defined redemption payment at maturity. Fixed income arbitrage is one of those risky strategies that hedge funds have historically used. Video conference trends for 2021; March 12, 2021. Most managers trade globally with a goal of generating steady returns.

1. Dwight M Grant 1. Professor of finance at the Anderson School of Management of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. 2. Gautam Vora 1. Associate professor of finance at the Anderson School of Management of the University of New Mexico. The article develops a method for implementing nonarbitrage term structure of interest rate models for the single-factor model under the Heath-Jarrow. Fixed income securities also carry inflation risk and credit and default risks for both issuers and counterparties. Unlike individual bonds, most bond funds do not have a maturity date, so avoiding losses caused by price volatility by holding them until maturity is not possible Define **Fixed** **Income** **Arbitrage**. means a strategy that takes advantage of compensating long and short positions in bonds or interest rate securities. The aim is to profit from pricing inefficiencies observed or expected in these securities

Episode 13: A Potential Fixed Income Solution in a Rising Rate Environment In this episode, Portfolio Manager Gregg Loprete discusses some of the challenges facing fixed income investors today, including the potential for rising rates, and how the Water Island Credit Opportunities Fund may offer a potential solution for all market environments Fixed income ETFs may help build more resilient portfolios to buffer against future volatility to pursue your investment goals. Here's how. Customize Your Core. Learn how to use ETFs to customize your fixed income core. Learn More. Lower the Cost of Your Core • VaR models for fixed income securities (principal components analysis), equity derivatives, convertible bonds arbitrage (delta-normal method), and risk arbitrage strategies

Most term structure models assume bond markets are complete, i.e., that all fixed income derivatives can be perfectly replicated using solely bonds. However, we find that, in practice, swap rates have limited explanatory power for returns on at-the-money straddles - portfolios mainly exposed to volatility risk Trade your view on equity volatility with VIX® options and futures. Learn more here * Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books*, media, journals, databases, government documents and more

An emerging literature relies on an index of limits of arbitrage in fixed-income markets. We analyze the benefits of an index that is model-free, robust and intuitive. This new index strengthens the evidence that limits of arbitrage proxy for risks priced in the cross-section of returns Abstract. We propose a parsimonious 'unspanned stochastic volatility' model of the term structure and study its implications for fixed-income option prices. The drift and quadratic variation of the short rate are affine in three state variables (the short rate, its long-term mean and variance) which follow a joint Markov (vector) process

IVOL is a first-of-its-kind ETF which is designed to hedge the risk of an increase in fixed income volatility and/or an increase in inflation expectations. It also seeks to profit from a steepening of the yield curve, whether that occurs via rising long-term interest rates or falling short term interest rates, which are historically associated with large equity market declines Capital Markets is comprised of two groups: Public Market Equities and Fixed Income. Public Market Equities are managed by both internal and external managers using a combination of traditional active, absolute return, and passive strategies. The Public Market Equities portfolio has an investment philosophy grounded in a risk-adjusted approach. SUMMARY Arbitrage-free valuation of a fixed-income instrument Using the arbitrage-free approach, viewing a security as a package of zero-coupon bonds means that two bonds with the same maturity and different coupon rates are viewed as different packages of zero-coupon bonds and valued accordingly bonds and fixed income derivatives are needed to identify the system. The absence of the volatility state variable in bond prices implies that bond innovations are not contemporaneously affected by volatility innova-tions, and therefore cannot be used to hedge volatility risk instantaneously

THE VOLATILITY STRUCTURE OF THE FIXED INCOME MARKET UNDER THE HJM FRAMEWORK CARL CHIARELLA* AND THUY-DUONG TO**ˆ School of Finance and Economics University of Technology, Sydney PO Box 123 Broadway NSW 2007 Australia *carl.chiarella@uts.edu.au **td.to@uts.edu.au ABSTRACT. This paper considers the dynamics for interest rate processes within th High Volatility-of-Volatility and High Correlation 209 Non-Gaussian Case 213 VGSA 215 AWord of Caution 218 Foreign Exchange, Fixed Income, and Other Markets 219 Foreign Exchange 219 Fixed Income 220 References 224 Index 23 Credit Arbitrage: Profits from relative value investments in corporate fixed income securities, such as purchasing the unsecured debt of a corporation while selling short the secured debt of the same corporation. Activist: Takes large positions in companies and uses this ownership stake to influence the decision making of management in the. Arbitrage can be classified as fixed income arbitrage, convertible arbitrage, relative value arbitrage, and merger arbitrage. Fixed Income Arbitrage. It exploits the pricing difference in fixed income securities, by taking up opposing position in price bonds or derivatives, with the expectation that price might revert to its true value

Hedge / Arbitrage. A portion of Elliott's portfolio is in what are referred to as hedge/arbitrage positions. This strategy is comprised of event arbitrage, related securities arbitrage, convertible arbitrage, volatility arbitrage and fixed-income arbitrage Volatility arbitrage, some results. As promised, here is some of the mathematics behind hedging options when you think that there is an arbitrage opportunity. Let's keep the problem simple. You are in a Black-Scholes world. Volatility is constant. But the market is pricing an option using the wrong volatility, implied volatility is lower than. Fixed income securities are subject to a number of risks, including credit and interest rate risks. International investments may involve risk of capital loss from unfavorable fluctuation in currency values, from differences in generally accepted accounting principles or from economic or political instability in other nations

**Fixed** **Income** (1) T his study session introduces the yield curve and key relationships underlying its composition. Traditional and modern theories and models explaining the shape of the yield curve are presented. An **arbitrage**-free framework using observed market prices is introduced for valuing option- free bonds. This approach also holds for mor Title: Arbitrage Strategies for Fixed Income Portfolio Investment 1 Arbitrage and Hedging Strategies for Fixed Income Portfolio Management By Win Udomrachtavanich,Ph.D., FRM Zero Volatility Spread (Z-spread) Option-adjusted Spread (OAS) 8 Relative Valuation Analysis. Types of Benchmark The Absolute Convertible Arbitrage Fund utilizes an arbitrage strategy designed to isolate and access the debt of a niche group of companies within the convertibles market. Historically, convertible arbitrage has provided moderate returns, low volatility, low beta* to most asset classes, and a different source of return than other fixed-income strategies Many translated example sentences containing fixed income arbitrage - German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations

- g the.
- Its performance swung from negative 10.7% for the year-to-date through March 23, 2020. all the way back to positive 25.2% to end the year, finishing at the top of the usually sleepy market neutral.
- For example: On day 1 you buy an option at 20% implied volatility, thinking realised volatility will be higher. You use implied vol of 20% to calculate the delta of the option to hedge its sensitivity to movement in the underlying. On day 2, the underlying has moved and the market now prices the option you bought with a 25% implied volatility
- GOVERNMENTAL FIXED INCOME SECURITIES AS A Conditional volatility of Colombian governmental fixed inCome seCurities arbitrage approach1 2and the equilibrium model
- A range of strategies that aim to capture the full potential of high yield bond markets whilst protecting downside risk. A strategy that aims to enhance returns on excess cash by investing in short-maturity, highly rated fixed-income securities where T+0 liquidity is deemed unnecessary
- Study Equity and Fixed Income (value debt sec/yield spot fwd/interest rate risk/credit anal) flashcards from James Keith 's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition

Latest Fixed income arbitrage articles on risk management, derivatives and complex financ * Fixed Income Arbitrage 0*.54% 1.65% 2.03% -0.61% 1.92% 1.57% 6.50% 0.51% 3.27% 8.55% 0.63% The LuxHedge Fixed Income Arbitrage UCITS Index includes funds that aim to exploit pricing anomalies within fixed income markets, anticipating that a discrepancy in price difference will narrow down in the future. These funds generally attempt t Fixed Income 1 - Treasury Bills. The first fixed income case illustrates how to calculate the fair value (present value of future cash flows) of a risk-free treasury bill when interest rates are known. Trading is based on identifying a mispriced treasury bill. Fixed Income 2 - Coupon Bonds

Launched in May 2019, the Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF (IVOL) has brought a new edge and hedge to fixed income ETFs, and raising $82 million in assets from a new. It would enhance the portfolio risk-adjusted return if we allocate, for example, 10% of our portfolio to this strategy, and the rest to equity and fixed income investments. References [1 ] A. Ilmanen, Expected Returns: An Investor's Guide to Harvesting Market Rewards, John Wiley & Sons , 2011 [2] T Cooper, Easy Volatility Investing, SSRN, 201 There's been a lot of volatility in fixed income this year, just as there has been in the equity markets. After starting the year at 2.43%, the U.S. 10-year Treasury yield spiked as high as 2.96%. Fixed-income arbitrage is an investment strategy generally associated with hedge funds, which consists of the discovery and exploitation of inefficiencies in the pricing of bonds, i.e. Fixed-Income Arbitrage At the opposite end of the risk scale from high volatility investment strategies like event-driven and emerging markets, fixed-income arbitrage funds seek to provide investors with minimal.

Fixed Income Asset Management -Volatility Arbitrage Traders Volatility Arbitrage Traders -Bridgewater Associates Alumni Group Bridgewater Associates Alumni Group. The Maxam Arbitrage Fund invests in a diversified portfolio of arbitrage opportunities. The goal of the fund is to generate positive absolute returns regardless of market conditions and offer an uncorrelated alternative to traditional equity and fixed income strategies

Shareholder Services. NexPoint Merger Arbitrage Fund. (877) 665-1287. Sales Consultants. NexPoint Sales Desk (Main) (833) 697-7253 Christophe Turpault, manager of the Equalt Fixed Income Arbitrage fund, said: We seek return by implementing the best trading opportunities we detect. Before adding a new position, we accurately assess its impact on the portfolio's risk. This level of risk management ensures a continuous performance • Arbitrage & Fixed Income: 8% return X 65% exposure = 5.2% contribution; Equity: 15% return x 35% exposure = 5.2% contribution • Performance of the Hybrid Portfolio Strategy = 10.4% return The scenarios of hybrid portfolio of equity, arbitrage and fixed income provided in the table above does not in any manner offer any assured returns and is subject to marke

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